Instrumental Music Bibliography

A Comprehensive Bibliography on Instrumental Music

(compiled by Don Vinzant in June, 2007, who acknowledges excellent previous work by Furman Kearley, Bill Humble and David Pharr)


Adams, James W. A Review of Albert Garner's Tract on Instrumental Music. Longview,

Tex.: By the Author, n.d.

Alder, George and Lawrence Bixler. Instrumental Music and Christian Fellowship.

Eugene, Ore.: Henry Printing Co., 1956.

Bales, James D. Instrumental Music and New Testament Worship. Searcy, Ark.: Resource

Publications, 1987 (reprint of 1973 edition).

Baxter, Batsell Barrett. "The Use of Instrumental Music in Worship, Part I." Gospel

Advocate, 29 August 1963.

Begg, James. The Use of Organs and Other Instruments of Music in Christian Worship

Indefensible. Glasgow, Scotland: W.R. McPhun & Son, 1808.

__________. Purity of Worship in the Presbyterian Church. Edinburgh, Scotland: Lyon &

Gemmell, 1876.

Bentley, Virgil. A Cappella Singing: Our Heritage of Strength (undated tract).

Blackburn, George A. The Life Work of John L. Girardeau. Columbia, S.C.: State Co.

1916. A professor in the Presbyterian Theological Seminary, Columbia, S.C.

"His book on 'Instrumental Music in the Public Worship of the Church' is really a testimony against what he regarded as a corruption of the worship of God. The book rests on the principle that a divine warrant is necessary for everything in the faith and practice of the Church, and the argument is a splendid piece of logical reasoning. If anyone supposes that this was a mere vagary of his, let him remember that this was the view of John Calvin, Zwingli, Gillespie, Rutherford, Owen, Thornwell, Breckenridge, Dabney, Charles Spurgeon, and a countless number of other illustrious men of all ages of the Church. It was also held by the Huguenot, the Scotch, the Irish, the Independent, and other reformed churches. (Statement by the editor, pp. 364-365.)

Boles, H. Leo. The Way of Unity Between "Christian" and Churches of Christ. Nashville,

Tenn.: Gospel Advocate Publishing Co., n.d.

Book, Morris B. and Miller, James D. Book-Miller Debate. Gainesville, Fla.: Phillips

Publications, 1955.

Boswell, Ira M. and N.B. Hardeman. On Instrumental Music in the Worship. Nashville:

Gospel Advocate Co., 1924. An excellent debate between highly respected

representatives of both positions.

Brewer, G.C. "Another Letter on the Instrumental Music Question." Gospel Advocate,

December 1946.

__________. "Faith and Opinion." Gospel Advocate, 18 February 1954.

__________. "Giving Answer to Every Man That Asketh." Gospel Advocate, 18

December 1941, pp. 83, 1203.

__________. "Giving Answer to Every One that Asketh." Gospel Advocate, 22 January

1942, pp. 82-83.

__________. Instrumental Music in the Worship. Austin, Tex.: Firm Foundation

Publishing Co., 1922. A review of O.E. Payne's book.

__________. "A Medley on the Music Question or a Potpourri of Philology," 2-3, 6-8.

Gospel Advocate, 18 July 1946; p. 666; 25 July 1946, p. 690; 15 August 1946, p.

762; 22 August 1946, pp. 787, 794; 29 August 1946, p. 813; 5 September 1946, p.


__________. A Medley on the Music Question or a Potpourri of Philology. Nashville,

Tenn.: Gospel Advocate Publishing Co., 1948.

__________. "A Program of Praise." Gospel Advocate, 6 February 1947, p. 113. Also in

The Christian Review, January 1946.

__________. "Questions on Instrumental Music" and "Questions Answered." Gospel

Advocate, 10 May 1945.

__________. A Review of Brother Homer A. Strong's Pamphlet Entitled "The Use of

Instrumental Music in Christian Worship is Scriptural." Sherman, Tex.: By the

Author, n.d.

__________. A Medley on the Music Question. Nashville: Gospel Advocate Co., 1948.

Brownlow, Paul. The Privilege of Praise. Ft. Worth, Texas: Praise and Honor Press, 2002.

Bunting, Robert H. and F.D. Marion. Both Sides of the Music Question Discussed.

Athens, Ala.: The C.E.I. Store, 1957.

Burgess, Tom. Documents on Instrumental Music. Portland, Ore.: Scripture Supply

House, 1966. Probably the most able and thorough defense of the use of

instruments in Christian worship. See reviews of this book by Dr. J. W. Roberts in

the Firm Foundation of 1969, '70, cited in this bibliography under "Roberts, J.W."

Also reviewed by Dr. William M. Green. See bibliography.

Calvin, John. Commentaries. Grand Rapids: W.B. Eerdmans Publishing Co. See Calvin's

comments opposing the use of instrumental music in Christian worship in his

commentaries at Genesis 4:21; I Samuel 18:1-9; Psalm 33:2; 71:22; 81:1; and


Campbell, Alexander. Psalms, Hymns, and Spiritual Songs. Bethany, Va.: By the Author,

1850. This edition, which is in the Abilene Christian College library, has the entire

quotation on pp. 5-6. The copy in the Disciples of Christ Historical Society does

not contain the full quotation.

Campbell, Jerry. "Worship That Pleases God." A study of John 4:24 delivered at the

Edmond Church of Christ, April 15, 2007.

Campbell, Selina Huntington. Home Life and Reminiscences of Alexander Campbell. St.

Louis, Mo.: John Burns, 1882.

Candlish, Robert S., ed. Statements by Dr. Ritchie and Dr. Porteous For and Against the

Use of the Organ in Public Worship in the Proceedings of the Presbytery of

Glasgow, 1807-08. Edinburgh, Scotland: Johnstone & Hunter, 1856. Also called

The Organ Question.

Carson, H.M. Epistles of Paul to the Colossians and Philemon. London: Tyndale Press,


Cavarnos, Constantine. Byzantine Sacred Music. Belmont, Mass.: Institute for Byzantine

& Modern Greek Studies, 1956.

Chambers, Dan. Where's The Piano? Nashville, Tn. Gospel Advocate, 2001 (second


Chester, Ray F. "The Power of New Testament Worship for Today." 30 January 1966

(Mimeographed sermon).

Choate, J.C. and William Woodson. Sounding Brass and Clanging Cymbals: The History

of Instrumental Music (1827-1968), Freed-Hardeman University, 1990.


Christian Advocate, 27 January 1966, p. 18.

Clark, Adam. The Holy Bible With a Commentary and Critical Notes. Vol. 2: Joshua to

Esther. New York: Abingdon-Cokesbury Press, n.d.

__________. Commentary and Critical Notes. Nashville: Abingdon-Cokesbury Press,

1847, 6 Vols. See Clark's comments opposing instrumental music in Christian

worship at 2 Chron. 29:25 (II, 690), Amos 6:5 (IV, 686) and Colossians 3:16.

Clubb, M.E. and Boles, H. Leo. Is Instrumental Music in Worship Scriptural? Nashville:

Gospel Advocate, 1927. An excellent written debate originally printed in the

Gospel Advocate. Highly recommended.

Coleman, Lyman. The Apostolic and Primitive Church. 2d ed. Boston, Mass.: Gould,

Kendall & Lincoln, 1844. From Jerome, Ep. 17 ad Marcellem.

Colly, A.O. The Colly-Tyndal Debate. Cincinnati, Ohio.: F.L. Rowe, n.d.

Dabney, R. L. "Review of Instrumental Music in the Public Worship of the Church, by

John L. Girardeau." The Presbyterian Quarterly, 1889, 4. 462.

Deaver, Roy. The Spiritual Sword. Getwell & Dunn Church of Christ. Memphis, Tenn.,

October 1970.

Decker, Floyd A. Instrumental Music Is Unscriptural. Gladewater, Tex.: By the Author,


Drewson, Percy E. Facts About Instrumental Music. Lynchburg, Va.: Home Print Shop,


Dykes, J. Harvey. "The Excellence of Christian Music." 11 February 1968 (Sermon at

College church of Christ, Searcy, Ark.).

Echols, Eldred L. The Origin and Development of Instrumental Music in Christian

Worship. A thesis for the Master of Art degree. Abilene Christian Library, 1962.

Ferguson, Everett. A Capella Music in the Public Worship of the Church. Abilene, Tex.:

Biblical Research Press, 1972. See the review by J.W. Roberts, "A Cappella Music

in the Public Worship of the Church - A Review," Firm Foundation, 5 December

1972. Ferguson said if "in your heart" meant "heartily" in Ephesians 5:19, "the

pronoun 'your' is left dangling with an unlikely possibility of being construed with

Lord. The patristic interpretation saw the phrase as referring to the mental

understanding accompanying the pronouncing of the words" (p. 15).

__________ and Jack P. Lewis and Earl West. The Instrumental Music Issue. Nashville,

Tennessee: Gospel Advocate, 1987.

Findlay, Clyde P., ed. The Green Light, 16 December 1954.

Ford, Gynnath. Should We Use Instrumental Music In Worship to God? Tract presented

by Milbryan Foundation, Box 4911, Dallas, Texas.

Fuller, Andrew. The Complete Works of Andrew Fuller. London: H.C. Bohn, 1845.

Reprint by James D. Bales, Gospel Advocate, 3 October 1946.

__________. "On Instrumental Music in Christian Worship." Gospel Advocate, 3 October

1946, pp. 933, 936, 941.

Fuqua, E.C. "Consistency Is Indeed a Jewel Rare!" The Vindicator, August 1947, p. 9.

__________. Instrumental Music in Worship is Sinful. Fort Worth, Tex.: By the Author,


Gardner, E. Claude. "One Hundred Years After the Melodeon." Gospel Advocate, 21 July

1960, pp. 453-54.

Garner, Albert and Smith, Emmett. Garner-Smith Debate on Instrumental Music. Searcy,

Ark., n.d. Debate conducted 16 April 1945.

Girardeau, John L. Instrumental Music in the Public Worship of the Church. Richmond,

Va.: Whittet & Shepperson, 1888.

Goodpasture, B.C. "Another Phenomenon." Gospel Advocate, 17 July 1952, p. 458.

__________. "A Question: McGarvey and the Instruments." Gospel Advocate, 30

September 1948, pp. 940, 949.

__________. "What Is Worship?" Gospel Advocate, 6 December 1962, p. 770.

Goodpasture, J.C. "Instrumental Music in the Church Unauthorized and Sinful." Gospel

Advocate, 20 August 1964, pp. 533-35.

Goodspeed, E.J. Instrumental Music Digest. Dallas, Tex.: Gospel Broadcast, 1936.

Gordon, Sylvan. "Unity in Worship," An Elder Response on Vocal Music," April 15,

2007, Edmond Church of Christ.

Green, William. "Ancient Comments on Instrumental Music in the Psalms." The

Restoration Quarterly 1 (1957): 8.

Green, Wm. M. "Concern for the Pattern" in Restoration Quarterly. Abilene, Texas. Vol.

10, No. 2, Second Quarter, 1967, pp. 99-104. Dr. Green of the Classical Greek

Department of the University of California Berkeley reviews and refutes

Documents on Instrumental Music by Tom Burgess.

__________. "The Church Fathers and Musical Instruments" in Restoration

Quarterly. Abilene, Texas. Vol. 9, No. 1, 1966, pp. 31-42. Dr. Green reviews a

doctoral dissertation accepted at Columbia University in 1965. The dissertation

was by James W. McKinnon entitled The Church and Musical Instruments.

McKinnon confirms the opposition to instrumental music by early church fathers.

__________. "New Material on New Testament Musicology" in Restoration

Quarterly. Abilene, Texas, Vol. 12, No. 2 and 3, Second and Third Quarters, 1969,

pp. 114-118. A Review of articles in Kittel's Theological Wordbook of the N. T.

and Lampe's A Patristic Greek Lexicon.

Haddow, Bob. Instrumental Music Can Be Justified. Temple City California, 1958.

Hall, S.H. "Another Argument Against Instrumental Music." Gospel Advocate, 13 May

1948, p. 458-59.

__________. "The Argument Unanswered." Gospel Advocate, 1 March 1951, p. 134.

__________. "Did Our Lord Put Instrumental Music in Worship?" Gospel Advocate, 8

April 1948.

__________. "Prove All Things." n.d. (Tract). Manuscript copy made by James D. Bales

from a copy in the Pepperdine College Library, Los Angeles, Calif.

__________. Review of J.J. Walker's Tract "Instrumental Music in Church Worship is

Scriptural." (no other information available)

__________. Scripture Studies. Vol. 4: Three Defenses of Music in Worship Answered.

Athens, Ala.: C.E.I. Publishing Co., 1960.

Hardeman, N.B. Boswell-Hardeman Discussion on Instrumental Music in the Worship.

Nashville, Tenn.: Gospel Advocate Publishing Co., 1924.

Harrell, R. Wayne. "Worship in Spirit and Truth." Firm Foundation, 26 July 1960.

Hawley, Monroe E. "The Answer of History." Firm Foundation, 2 May 1972.

__________. "The Organ Controversy in St. Louis." Gospel Broadcast, 18 August 1949,

pp. 586-87.

Herbermann, Charles G., ed. Catholic Encyclopedia. 10:651, 716. New York:

Encyclopedia Press, 1911. The article on "music" by G. Gietmann, vol. 7.

Hicks, Olan L. "A Capella Singing Proves Best." Editorial. Christian Chronicle, 23

August 1950, p. 2.

Highers, Alan E. (editor). "Why Churches of Christ Do Not Use Instrumental Music in

Worship," The Spiritual Sword. (January 2004) pp. 1-48, see especially lead article

by A. D. Highers, pp. 2-24. A 51 minute video by Highers on same theme.

Available from 21st Century (Nashville, Tenn.).

__________. The Spiritual Sword, vol. 38, number 3 (April, 2007). A special issue on

false teachers with a major article by Alan E. Highers, "Responding To A Defense

of Instrumental Music," pp. 5-33.

Hinds, John T. The Use of Instrumental Music in the Worship of God. Austin, Tex.: Firm

Foundation Publishing Co., 1936.

Hines, J.L. Instrumental Music Digest. Dallas, Tex.: Gospel Broadcast, 1936.

Hipps, Shane. The Hidden Power of Electronic Culture: How Media Shapes Faith, The

Gospel, and The Church. Grand Rapids: Youth Specialties, published by

Zondervan, 2005, pp. 149-152.

Hobbs, A.G., Jr. Why Others Use Instrumental Music in Worship. Kansas City, Mo.: By

the Author, n.d.

Jackson, Hulen L. "Lard Was a Good Prophet." Firm Foundation, 15 November 1966,


Janes, Don Carlos. "Instrumental Music in Worship." Louisville, Ky.: By the Author, n.d.

Jernigan, Willis G. "A Baptist Views Instrumental Music." Gospel Advocate, 27 January 1949.

Jerome. The quotation concerning the reaper singing psalms was called to my attention many years ago in Lyman Coleman, The Apostolic and Primitive Church, 2d ed., Boston: Gould, Kendall & Lincoln, 1844, p. 373. He gave his source as Jerome Ep. 17 ad. Marcellem. Since I had taken the note around thirty years ago and now no longer have the book, my friend Dr. William M. Green located and translated the quotation for me. Jerome Labourt, Saint Jerome Lettres, Tome II, Paris: Societe D'Edition "Les Belles Lettres," 1951, p. 112. I am very grateful to Dr. Green for several passages which he tracked down for me so that I could use the original sources rather than quotations in other books. (annotation by James D. Bales)

Jividen, Jimmy. Worship in Song. Ft. Worth, Texas: Star Bible, 1987.

Killen, W.D. The Ancient Church: Its History, Doctrine, Worship, and Constitution. New

York: Anson D.F. Randolph & Co., 1883.

King, Peter. An Inquiry Into the Constitution, Discipline, Unity and Worship of the

Primitive Church. New York: G. Lane & P. P. Sandford, 1841.

Kraeling, Dr. Carl. Ancient and Oriental Music. Vol. 5. Edited by Egon Wellesz. London:

New Oxford History of Music, 1957.

Kretzmann, A.T. "The Sola Scriptura Principle Applied to Texts on Church and

Ministry." Sola Scriptura, September-October 1971,. pp. 4-5.

Kurfees, M. C. Instrumental Music in the Worship. Nashville: Gospel Advocate Co.,

1911, 288 pp. This is a most extensive work presenting the case against the use of

instrumental music in Christian worship. Highly recommended.

__________. Instrumental Music in the Worship. Nashville, Tenn.: Gospel Advocate

Publishing Co., 1922.

__________. "Review of John B. Cowden's Tract on 'Instrumental Music in the Church'

and Reply to J.B. Briney's Friendly Criticism." Tract. Nashville, Tenn.: Gospel

Advocate Publishing Co. First published as a series of articles which began in the

Gospel Advocate on January 1917.

__________. Review of O.E. Payne's Book on "Psallo." Nashville, Tenn.: Gospel

Advocate Publishing Co., 1937.

__________. Walking by Faith. Louisville, Ky.: Haldeman Avenue Church, n.d. Reprint

of an 1894 tract. Also printed by the Gospel Advocate in 1934.

Lanier, Roy H. "Instrumental Music and Romans 14." Firm Foundation, 10

March 1964, p. 153.

__________. "Questions on Worship." Firm Foundation, 8 June 1965, p. 361.

Lard, Moses E. Lard's Quarterly. Vol. 1 Part 2. Dallas, Tex.: Eugene S. Smith, n.d., June

1864, pp. 174-75.

__________. Lard's Quarterly. Vol. 4 Lexington, Ky., October 1867, p. 368. Reprinted by

Old Paths Book Club, Hollywood, Calif., n.d.

Lemmons, Reuel. "Faith or Opinion." Editorial. Firm Foundation, 30 September 1969.

__________. "The Jazz Craze Hits the Churches." Firm Foundation, 1 September 1959, p.


Lewis, John T. "Straws in the Wind." The Bible Banner, March 1942.

__________. The Voice of the Pioneers on Instrumental Music and Societies. Nashville:

Gospel Advocate Co., 1932.

Luttrell, William Leon. Instrumental Music in New Testament Worship. A Master of Arts

thesis at the Abilene Christian University Library, 1969.

Martin, Luther W. " 'Psallo' and Its English Equivalent." Gospel Advocate, 11 March

1943, p. 229.

Martin, Ralph P. Worship in the Early Church. Old Tappan, N.J.: Fleming H. Revell Co.,


McClintock, John and Strong, James. Cyclopedia of Biblical, Theological, and

Ecclesiastical Literature. Vol. 7. Grand Rapids, Mich.: Baker Book House, 1969.

Their discussion presents the pros and cons of instrumental music. The defense is

very brief and cites no Scripture, although it does use human reason and makes

mention of its use in the Old Testament. See also vol. 8.

McCord, Hugo. "Arndt-Gingrich To Be Corrected." Gospel Advocate, 1 November 1962,

p. 688; 11 December 1969, p. 794.

__________. "A Disappointment." Gospel Advocate, 20 August 1965, p. 539.

__________. "A Review." Gospel Advocate, 19 August 1965.

McGarvey, J.W. "Instrumental Music in the Church Unauthorized and Sinful." Gospel

Advocate, 13 August 1964. Reprint from the Apostolic Times.

__________. "What Shall We Do About the Organ?" Manuscript.

McKinnon, James William. "The Church Fathers and Musical Instruments." Ph.D.

dissertation, Columbia University, New York, 1965; Ann Arbor, Mich.: University


__________. "The Meaning of the Patristic Polemic Against Musical Instruments."

Current Musicology, Spring 1965, pp. 70, 90-110, 117. Published under the aegis

of the Music Department, Columbia University, New York.

McMillan, E.W., and Strong, Homer E. Instrumental Music in the Worship of God.

Austin, Tex.,: Firm Foundation Publishing Co., n.d.

Meredith, Maurice A. "Instrumental Music Violates Christ's Authority! No. 2." Truth in

Love, May 1949.

Meyer, Jack. Why We Do Not Use Instrumental Music in Worship. Athens, Ala.: Bible

School Press, n.d.

Miller, James P., and Book, Morris B. Book-Miller Debate. Gainesville, Fla.: Phillips

Publications, 1955.

Miller, Waymon D. "What Worship Really Is." Firm Foundation, 4 May 1971, p. 280.

Morgan, Boyd E. Instrumental Music. n.p., n.d.

Morgan, Clarence C. "Why We Sing and Do Not Play.: Austin, Tex.: Firm Foundation

Publishing Co., n.d.

Morris, Don H. "Play on, Miss Bertha "The Spiritual Sword. (April, 2006), pp. 8-14

Moser, K.C. "Text and Context." World Vision, October 1948.

Nichols, Gus. "Instrumental Music in Worship? No. 2." Words of Truth, 13 June 1969, p.


__________. "The Church of Christ - Its Singing" Freed-Hardeman Lectureship Book,


__________. "The Commission and Spiritual Singing," Gospel Preachers of Today: Gus

Nichols, Abilene, Texas: Biblical Research Press, pp. 202-209.

North, R. Stafford. "Worshipping the Holy God," "Why We Sing Without Instruments,"

"What We Learn from the Corinthian Worship." (online articles from

Novak, Warder K. "Who Teaches Heresy?" The Gospel Advertiser, November 1951.

Nowlin, J. Edward. Mechanical Instrumental Music in Worship. Johnson City, Tenn.: By

the Author, n.d.

__________. The New Apostasy. Johnson City, Tenn.: By the Author, n.d.

__________. "A Review of -'Seven Bible Reasons Why It Is Right to Use Instrumental

Music in Worship in the Church,' by Sam P. Jones." Johnson City, Tenn.: By the

Author, n.d.

Otey, W.. and J.B. Briney. Otey-Briney Debate on "Instrumental Music" and "The

Societies." Cincinnati: F.L. Rowe: 1908, 299 pp.

Pack, Frank. "Instrumental Music in the Worship." The Restoration Principle. Abilene,

Tex.: Abilene Christian College, 1962.

__________. "What Kind of Music Do You Offer?," sermon in Great Preachers of Today,

(Frank Pack) Abilene, Tx.: Biblical Research Press, 1963, pp. 224-237.

Palmer, Roy V. "A Historical Study of Singing in the Early Church," Master's thesis,

Pepperdine University Library.

Payne, O.E. Instrumental Music Is Scriptural? Cincinnati: Standard Publishing Co., 1920.

Pepperdine, George. "Instrumental Music" undated tract from c. 1952.

Pharr, David. "Does It Matter?" The Spiritual Sword, (April 2006), pp. 35-39.

Price, John. Old Light on New Worship: Music Instruments and The Worship of God, A

Theological, Historical and Psychological Study. Avinger, Texas: Simpson

Publishing Co., 2005.

Pryor, Neale. "Arguments Some Advance in Favor of Instrumental Music," (revised title)

The Spiritual Sword, Volume 11, Number 2 (January, 1980).

Raines, C.F. "The Meaning of Psallo." Gospel Advocate, 3 December 1959, pp. 775-76.

Ramsey, Johnny. "The Best Argument Is God's Word." Firm Foundation, 21 March 1961,

p. 18.

Ritchie, Dr., and Porteous, Dr. The Organ Question. Edinburgh, Scotland: n.p., 1856.

Roady, J.C. "Moore-Roady Debate." The American Christian Review, 9 July 1946.

Roberson, Charles Heber. "The Meaning and Use of Psallo (Part I)." The Restoration

Quarterly 6 (1962): 30-31, 59-60.

__________. Revised and edited by Frank Pack and J. W. Roberts. "The Meaning and

Use of Psallo (Part I)" in Restoration Quarterly. Abilene, Texas. Vol. 6, No. 1,

First Quarter, 1962, pp. 19-31. (Part II) Vol. 6, No. 2, 1962 pp. 57-66.

Dr. Roberson, long time head of the Bible Department at ACU, presents the

results of years of research.

Roberts, J.W. "A Capella Music in the Public Worship of the Church, A Review." Firm

Foundation, 5 December 1972.

__________. "Answers to Today's Arguments on Instrumental Music." Adorning the

Doctrine, 12th Annual Lectureship. Lubbock, Tex.: Lubbock Christian College,


__________. "Instrumental Music" in Firm Foundation. Austin, Texas. Sept. 19, 1967, p.

599; Sept. 26, p. 615; Oct. 10, p. 648; Oct. 17, p. 663; Nov. 21, p. 759. In this

series of five articles Dr. Roberts discussed the instrument question in the light of

works by James McKinnon, Gerhard Delling, Dwaine Dunning and Tom Burgess.

__________. "Is Singing in the 'Worship' Service Demonstrably Scriptural?" Firm

Foundation, 26 August 1969, p. 532.

__________. "Psallo and Bauer's Lexicon." Firm Foundation, 13 October 1959.

__________. "Psallo - Its Meaning: A Review (1-6)." Firm Foundation, 24 March 1959,

p. 183; 7 April 1959, p. 216: 12 May 1959, p. 292; 9 June 1959, p. 356; 7 July

1959, pp. 421-21; 4 August 1959, p. 484.

__________. "A Review of 'Documents on Instrumental Music' (1-7)." Firm Foundation,

11 November 1969, p. 709; 18 November 1969, p. 727; 25 November 1969, pp.

743-44; 2 December 1969, p. 759; 9 December 1969, p. 775; 23 December 1969,

p. 807; 6 January 1970, pp. 7, 13.

Sanders, J.P., and Squire, Russel N. Church Music. Los Angeles, Calif.: Vermont Avenue

church of Christ, n.d.

Sanders, Joe. "Ordained Music for and in the Church." Gospel Advocate, 20 October


Sanders, Phil. "The First Instruments," The Spiritual Sword, (April, 2006), pp. 4-8.

Sanderson, L.O. "The Doctrine on Church Music." Gospel Advocate, 22 November


Shelley, T. Rubel. "Instrumental Music: The Real Issue Involved." Freed-Hardeman

Lecture 1977.

__________. Shelley-Dunning [Dwaine] Debate. West Monroe, La.: Wm C. Johnson,


__________. "Instruments as an Aid in Singing." Gospel Advocate, 8 June 1950.

__________. A Case for A Cappella Music As Worship Today. Nashville: 20th Century

Christian, 1987.

Shipp, Mark, Allen and Patricia B. McNichol (et al) Christian Studies Austin Graduate

School. Austin, Texas, number 19.

__________. Christian Studies. Austin Graduate School, Austin, Texas, Number 13

(1993), pp. 13, 14.

Smith, Emmett, and Garner, Albert. Garner-Smith Debate on Instrumental Music. Searcy,

Ark." N.p/, n.d. Debate conducted April 16, 1945.

Smith, Eugene S., Sr., and Hunt, Julian O. The Smith-Hunt Debate. Dallas, Tex.: Good

News Press, 1953.

Smith, F.M. How to Praise God Today. Nashville, Tenn.: Gospel Advocate Publishing

Co., n.d. Three editions published.

Sommer, Daniel. "Instrumental Music in Worship." Apostolic Review, n.d., pp. 16-18.

Sprague, Robert. Why the Church of Christ Does Not Use Instrumental Music in Its

Worship. Lawton, Okla.: n.p., n.d.

Spurgeon, Charles. The Treasury of David, Volume II, New York: Funkard

Wagnalls Co., the 1892 edition, p. 301 (comments on Ps. 42:4). An unexpected

comment from Spurgeon, "What a degradation to supplant the intelligent song of

the whole congregation by the theatrical prettiness of a quartet, the refined niceties

of a choir, or the blowing off of wind from inanimate bellows and pipes! We might

as well pray by machinery as praise by it."

Stark, Carroll and Joe S. Warlick. A Debate. Nashville, Tennessee: McQuiddy Printing

Co., 1910. Proposition: The word of God authorizes the use of instruments of

music for praise in the church of Jesus Christ.

Stephens, Richard E. Vocal or Instrumental Music - Which? Abilene, Texas: Quality

Printing Co., 56 pp.

Tippens, Darryl. That's Why We Sing: Reclaiming the Wonder of Congregational

Singing. Abilene, Tex.: Leafwood Press, 2007.

Titus, Charles. A Ten-Cent History of "Music in Worship." Cherokee, Okla.: By the

Author, n.d.

Tolle, James M. Instrumental Music in Worship. Tract presented by the Alexander St.,

San Fernando, CA. One of the best tracts for a short treatment of the problem.

Van Dyke, Frank. Is Instrumental Music Scriptural? Murfreesboro, Tenn.: DeHoff

Publications, 1949.

Vinzant, Don. "The Music of the New Testament Church." A sermon preached at the

Edmond Church of Christ, April 15, 2007.

"The Voice of the Ages Against Instrumental Music in Worship." Anonymous tract. New

Castle, Pa.: Neglected Truth Facts, n.d.

Waddey, John. "What My Gift to God Does." Words of Truth, 24 March 1972, p.2.

Wade, Carl W. "McClintock and Strong on Church Music." Gospel Advocate, 25 June

1970; Firm Foundation, 19 May 1970.

Wallace, Foy E., Jr. Instrumental Music in the Christian Worship. Wichita, Kans.:

Christian Worker Publishing Co., 1933.

Wallace, G.K., and Barber, Burton W. Wallace-Barber Debate. Abilene, Tex.: James W.

Nichols, 1953.

Wallace, Glenn L. "Digressives Are 'Joined to Their Idols.'" Firm Foundation, 27

February 1951.

Walker, Fred B. The Kind of Music God Wants. Dallas, Tex.: Christian Publishing Co.,

n.d. Dresden, Ohio: Christian Leader Co., n.d.

Warlick, Joe S., and Stark, J. Carroll. A Debate. Nashville, Tenn.: McQuiddy Printing

Co., 1910.

Warren, Thomas B. Editor. The Spiritual Sword. Theme: Instrumental Music in Worship

is Unscriptural. Getwell Church of Christ, Memphis, Tennessee: Vol. 10, No. 1,

Oct. 1978. This contains an article by Dr. J. D. Thomas.

__________. "The Use of Instrumental Music in Worship Is a Violation of God's Law of

Covenants, No. 3." Gospel Advocate, 15 June 1967.

White, Joseph Welles. "Making Melody in Your Heart (1)" in Firm Foundation, Austin,

Texas: Firm Foundation Publishing House, April 25, 1978, Vol. 95, No. 17, pp. 7-

11. This begins a series of 10 articles on Christian music and discusses the

instrument problem.

Wilkes, L.B., and Ditzler, Jacob. The Louisville Debate. Lexington, Ky.: J.D. Trapp,


Willis, John T. "Conscience, Respectability and the Instrumental Music Question." Firm

Foundation, 13 August 1963, p. 515.

Wilson, L.R. Music in Christian Worship. San Antonio, Tex.: n.p., n.d.

Winkler, Dan.

Woods, Guy N. "Instrument Music in Worship." Gospel Advocate, 8 May 1952.

__________. "Mechanical Instruments and Worship." Gospel Advocate, 20 October 1966.

__________. "A Modern Innovation." Gospel Advocate, 10 July 1952, p. 445.

__________. "Summary and Conclusion." Gospel Advocate, 10 July 1952, p. 445.

__________. "Worship - Of What Does It Consist?" Gospel Advocate, 16 July 1959.

__________. Why Churches of Christ Do Not Use Instrumental Music in Christian

Worship. Dallas, Tex.: Eugene S. Smith, n.d.

Wright, Cecil N. "Instrumental Music in Christian Worship, No. 3." Gospel Advocate, 17

December 1964.

Congregational Singing

The New Testament church praised God with vocal worship music only. Under the guidance of the inspired apostles, they sang psalms, hymns, and spiritual songs, making melody in their hearts, but did not use instruments.